Q1: What is Kubernetes, and how does it facilitate container orchestration?
Answer: Kubernetes is an open-source container orchestration platform that automates the deployment, scaling, and management of containerized applications. It provides a robust framework for running and coordinating containers across a cluster of machines. Kubernetes simplifies the management of containerized workloads by handling tasks such as container scheduling, load balancing, scaling, and self-healing. It allows organizations to efficiently deploy and manage applications in a highly scalable and resilient manner.
Q2: What are the main components of Kubernetes architecture?
Answer: The Kubernetes architecture has several important features:
1. Master node: The master node acts as a control plane and controls the entire cluster. API server, controller, scheduler etc. contains components and acts as the main distribution group.
2. Worker Nodes: Worker nodes, also known as slave nodes, are worker machines that run packages. They are controlled by the master nodes and perform the tasks assigned to them.
3. Pod: The pod is the smallest and most easily deployable unit in Kubernetes. They encapsulate one or more containers and share resources such as storage and communication.
4. ReplicaSets: ReplicaSets ensure scalability and security, ensuring that an identical number of copies always works.
5. Services: Services define a stable network endpoint for accessing a group of pods. They enable load balancing and provide an abstraction for accessing applications running within the cluster.
Question 3: How does Kubernetes ensure high availability and scalability?
Answer: Kubernetes provides high availability and scalability through the following mechanisms:
1. Replication and Self-Healing: Kubernetes uses ReplicaSets and Deployments to ensure that a desired number of pod replicas are running. If a pod fails or terminates, Kubernetes automatically replaces it with a new instance, ensuring the desired state is maintained.
2. Horizontal Partition Auto-Scaling (HPA): HPA automatically scales the number of partition replicas based on resource usage metrics such as CPU or memory. Allows applications to manage traffic and performance.
3.Cluster scaling: Kubernetes supports scaling the cluster itself by dynamically adding or removing worker nodes. This ensures that there are sufficient resources to meet the application's needs.
Q4: How does Kubernetes manage container connections?
Answer: Kubernetes manages the container network as follows:
1. Pod network: Kubernetes assigns an IP address to each Pod, allowing containers in a Pod to communicate with each other using localhost.
Pods can use IP addresses to reach other Pods in the same cluster.
2. Network Service: A Kubernetes service provides a fixed network endpoint for accessing a cluster of partitions. The service supports balancing and automatic routing for appropriate partitions even if IP addresses change.
3. Ingress Checker: Ingress Checker provides HTTP and HTTPS routes to the cluster. They provide external access to cluster services by acting as reverse agents and managing traffic.
Q5: How do Kubernetes store apps?
Answer: Kubernetes offers several storage options for data:
1. Volumes: Volumes in Kubernetes provide persistent storage for Pods.
They can be powered by local storage, network attached storage (NAS), or private cloud providers. Units ensure that data persists through Capsule resets and resets.
2. Permanent Units (PV): PV is a cluster-wide storage that can be customized or deployed according to the customer. They separate storage from partitions, allowing data to survive in partitions.
3. Permanent Volume Demands (PVC): PVC is a demand for a given storage volume (PV). They offer an abstract solution.