Answer: Cybersecurity is the practice of protecting computer systems, networks, and data from unauthorized access, attack, destruction, or theft. It includes the use of safeguards and technologies to ensure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of digital assets. Cybersecurity is about preventing and mitigating the risks associated with cyber threats such as malware, phishing, hacking, and data breaches.
Q2: What are the basic concepts of cyber security?
Answer: The basic principles of cybersecurity include:
1. Privacy: Make sure that sensitive information is only accessible to individuals or organizations.
2. Integrity: Controlling the accuracy, consistency, and reliability of data and systems by preventing unauthorized modification or tampering.
3. Availability: Ensure authorized users can access and use systems, services, and information as needed.
4. Authentication: Authenticate a user or system to prevent unauthorized access.
5. Authorization: Provides individuals with access rights and appropriate rights according to their roles and responsibilities.
6. Risk assessment: identify and assess potential hazards and threats to determine the level of risk and implement appropriate security measures.
7. Incident Response: Develop plans and procedures to identify, respond to, and recover from a cybersecurity incident.
Q3: What is the role of encryption in cyber security?
Answer: Encryption is an important security mechanism in network security. It involves using encryption algorithms to convert plain text or data into an unreadable format called ciphertext. Encryption helps protect sensitive data by ensuring that only authorized parties with the decryption key can access and decrypt the data. It is often used to protect transferred data (eg.
, over HTTPS) and data at rest (for example, encrypted storage or databases).
Q4: What are network security threats?
Answer: Types of cybersecurity threats include:
1.Malware: Malware such as viruses, worms, ransomware, and Trojan horses designed to infiltrate and damage computer systems or steal data.
2. Phishing: The act of impersonating a legitimate person via email, website or message to obtain sensitive information such as passwords or financial details.
3. DDoS attack: A denial of service attack that overloads a system or network, making it inaccessible to legitimate users.
4. Insider threats: abuse or neglect resulting in unauthorized information, theft or body tampering by persons within an organization with authorized access.
5. Social Engineering: Manipulating or deceiving people through psychological manipulation or deception to obtain consent or sensitive information.
6. Password attacks: Use techniques such as brute force attacks, dictionary attacks or credential attacks to guess or steal passwords and gain unauthorized access to systems or accounts.
7. Man-in-the-middle attack: intercept and modify communication between two parties without their knowledge, allowing the attacker to eavesdrop, modify or inject content with bad language.
Q5: How does multi-factor authentication (MFA) improve network security?
Answer: Multi-factor authentication (MFA) increases network security by adding an additional layer of security to the authentication process.
It requires users to provide different credentials to access the system or account. In general, MFA combines something the user knows (like a password) with something they have (eg.
, physical tokens) or what they are (for example, biometric data such as fingerprint or facial recognition).
MFA reduces the risk of unauthorized access, even if passwords are compromised, as attackers must bypass multiple authentication methods. Strengthens overall cybersecurity protection by adding an additional barrier against phishing attacks, identity theft, and bad passwords.
Q6: What is the CIA triad in cybersecurity?
Answer: The CIA Triad is a core cybersecurity concept that represents three principles: confidentiality, integrity, and availability.
Confidentiality ensures that sensitive information can be accessed by authorized persons or organizations. It includes measures such as encryption, access control, and data sharing.
Integrity ensures that information remains accurate, complete, and unaltered.
Techniques such as hashing, digital signatures, and checksums are used to identify and prevent unauthorized transactions.
Accessibility Ensure authorized users can access and use systems, networks, and data as needed. It includes implementing measures to prevent attacks such as redundancy, disaster recovery planning, and DDoS mitigation.
Q7: What is the concept of defense-in-depth in network security?
Answer: Defense in depth is a strategy that involves applying multiple layers of security controls to protect against a variety of cyber threats.
It recognizes that no single security measure can provide complete protection and therefore a layered approach is necessary. Each layer adds an additional barrier, and if one is breached, the other can still provide protection. Examples of defense-in-depth include firewalls, intrusion detection systems, antivirus software, access controls, and regular security audits.
Q8: What is vulnerability assessment and how is it different from acceptance assessment?
Answer: Vulnerability testing is the process of identifying and evaluating vulnerabilities in systems, networks, and applications.
It involves using electronic tools to detect known vulnerabilities, configuration errors, and security vulnerabilities. The result is a report showing potential vulnerabilities that need to be addressed.
Penetration testing, also known as penetration testing, is a controlled, simulated attack on a system or network to identify vulnerabilities. Penetration testing goes beyond vulnerability testing by attempting to exploit vulnerabilities and gain unauthorized access to demonstrate the impact of vulnerabilities. It provides a more accurate assessment of the organization's security posture.
Q9: What is the minimum policy concept in network security?
Answer: The concept of minimum authorization states that users should only be granted minimal access and be able to perform the functions authorized by the authority. This policy helps minimize the impact of account privacy or insider threats. By limiting the clearance, you lower your stopping point and reduce the damage an attacker can inflict. The minimum policy is achieved through regular review and updating of access control, responsible access control, and user rights.
Q10: What is the difference between symmetric encryption and asymmetric encryption?
Answer: Symmetric encryption and asymmetric encryption are the two main encryption methods:
Symmetric encryption uses the same key for encryption and decryption. Keys are shared between the sender and receiver, allowing for faster and more secure encryption of large files. But the challenge lies in securely exchanging shared keys.
Asymmetric encryption, also known as public key cryptography, uses a pair of keys: a public key for encryption and a private key for decryption.
The public key is freely distributed while the private key is kept secret. Asymmetric encryption provides secure communication between two parties without exchanging shared keys. However, it is considered more expensive and slower than integration.
Q11: What is a Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack?
Answer: A Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack is a malicious attempt to disrupt the normal operation of a network, system, or website with a flow of traffic or requests.
In a DDoS attack, attackers use a network of multiple infected devices called botnets to control the attack and generate large amounts of traffic or requests at the same time.
The purpose of a DDoS attack is to deprive the target of network bandwidth, computing resources, or capacity so that they cannot respond to legitimate requests. This causes service interruptions, downtime and potential financial losses for the target organization.
DDoS attacks can be used in many ways, for example:
1. Volumetric attacks: These attacks are designed to exploit the target's network bandwidth by injecting large amounts of data into the target network, usually using techniques such as UDP or ICMP. flooding.
2. TCP weak state attacks: These attacks exploit the limitations of the TCP protocol by using the client's resources such as the maximum number of connections or pauses available.
3. Application Layer Attacks: These attacks target vulnerabilities in specific applications or services, causing them to be overwhelmed with heavy requests such as HTTP floods or SYN floods.
4.Reflection/Strengthening Attacks: These attacks involve the use of legitimate services such as DNS or NTP servers to strengthen forwarding to the target. The attacker spoofs the IP address so that the response from the servers reaches the victim.
To mitigate the impact of DDoS attacks, organizations use a variety of defenses, including traffic filtering, rate limiting, traffic flow through content distribution centers (CDNs), and the use of specialized DDoS mitigation services. These metrics help detect and block malicious traffic and ensure that legitimate traffic reaches the target source.